A category of science that deals with the study of matter and its constituent materials are known as chemistry. It also involves the properties and the responses of certain substances to the production of new materials. In the production of new chemical compounds, chemistry primarily includes molecules, ions & atoms.
Chemistry discusses topics like how atoms and molecules communicate to generate new compounds through chemical bonds. Two kinds of chemical bonds are available that are primary chemical bonds, for example,
(a) Covalent bonds where one or more electrons share an atom.
(b) Ionic bonds, wherein one or more electrons are donated by one atom to another atom to generate ions and
(3) Metallic bonds.
Secondary chemical bonds are hydrogen bonds, ion-ion interaction, Van der Waals force bonds, ion-dipole interaction and so on.
There are many chemistry-related disciplines. Inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and biochemistry are the major branches of chemistry.
Chemistry branches classification
1. Organic chemistry
The study of the characteristics, arrangement, composition, preparations and reactions of carbon-containing substances that involve all hydrocarbons is organic chemistry. It also combines several other ingredients, like oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus, nitrogen, halogens, silicon and sulphur.
2. Inorganic chemistry
Analysis of inorganic compounds or compounds which do not have a C-H bond is a study of inorganic chemical compounds. Metals contain various inorganic compounds.
3. Physical Chemistry
Physical chemistry is a study of the macroscopic mechanisms in chemical processes, like momentum, acceleration, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium concerning the concepts, techniques and principles of physics.
Biochemistry is the chemical branch that includes and is related to the analysis of chemical processes inside living organisms. From biochemical processes, the complexity of life arises.
5. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry utilizes instruments and procedures to separate, identify and quantify the matter. In practice, isolation, classification or calculation may constitute the entire process or be combined with another method. By isolation process, analytes can be separated. Qualitative analysis determines analytes, whereas the number or concentration of quantities is determined by quantitative analysis.
In the field of chemistry, the periodic table of elements is commonly used to bring up chemical compounds since they are organized in a manner that shows periodic patterns and chemical properties of the elements. The Periodic Table, however, normally shows only the element’s symbol and not its full name.
Modern Periodic Table Periods
Elements that are included in the same period have the same number of shells, which is equivalent to the period number. The number of electrons in the valence shell rises from 1 to 8 while shifting from left to right in the given period, while the number of shells is constant.
Groups in a Modern periodic table
Eighteen vertical columns known as groups are found in the modern periodic table. Elements in Group 1 are classified as alkali metals. Elements in Group 2 are known as alkaline earth metals. Pnictogens are recognized as group 15 elements. Group 16 elements are known as chalcogens. Elements of group 17 are recognized as halogens. Elements of group 18 are categorized as noble gases.
Chemical processes happen all around us. A million chemical processes take place in the human body every day. Chemical reactions include all activities of the body, including the consumption of energy for muscle function. Hence the theory of chemistry has a tremendous significance in everyday life.